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Full Bibliography

Ahern, J., Worthen, M., Masters, J., Lippman, S. A., Ozer, E. J., & Moos, R. (2015). The challenges of Afghanistan and Iraq veterans’ transition from military to civilian life and approaches to reconnection. PLOS ONE, 10(7), e0128599.

Ahlin, E. M., & Douds, A. S. (2020). If you build it, will vets come? An identity theory approach to expanding veterans’ treatment court participation. Criminal Justice Review, 45(3), 319–336.


Balint, P. (2021). Introduction: Is a military really worth having? Ethics & International Affairs, 35(3), 343–352.

Bossarte, R., Claassen, C. A., & Knox, K. (2010). Veteran suicide prevention: Emerging priorities and opportunities for intervention. Military Medicine, 175(7), 461–462.

Braun, V. & Clarke, V. (2019). Reflecting on reflexive thematic analysis. Qualitative Research in Sport, Exercise and Health, 11(4), 589–597.

Brooks, R. A.  (2021). Are US civil-military relations in crisis? Parameters, 51(1), 51–63. Military Database; Social Science Premium Collection.


Brooks, R. A. (2019). Integrating the civil–military relations subfield. Annual Review of Political Science, 22(1), 379–398.

Byrne, D. (2022). A worked example of Braun and Clarke’s approach to reflexive thematic analysis. Quality & Quantity, 56(3), 1391–1412.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2023). Disparities in suicide. Retrieved on March 3, 2024, from

Cohen, W. (1997). Remarks as delivered by Secretary of Defense William S. Cohen. Presented on September 26, 1997. Yale University, New Haven, CT.

Cohn, L. (1999). The evolution of the civilian-military ’gap’ debate. Paper prepared for the TISS project on the gap between the military and civilian society. Retrieved March, 25, 2023.

Cooper, L., Caddick, N., Godier, L., Cooper, A., & Fossey, M. (2018). Transition from the military into civilian life: An exploration of cultural competence. Armed Forces and Society, 44(1), 156–177.


Creswell, J. W., & Creswell, J. D. (2018). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches (Fifth edition). SAGE.


Creswell, J. W., & Creswell, J. W. (2007). Qualitative inquiry & research design: Choosing among five approaches (2nd ed). Sage Publications.


Creswell, J. W., & Poth, C. N. (2018). Qualitative inquiry & research design: Choosing among five approaches (Fourth edition). SAGE.


Crowe, S., Cresswell, K., Robertson, A., Huby, G., Avery, A., & Sheikh, A. (2011). The case study approach. BMC Medical Research Methodology, 11(1), 100.


Darwin Holmes, A. G. (2020). Researcher positionality—A consideration of its influence and place in qualitative research—A new researcher guide. Shanlax International Journal of Education, 8(4), 1–10.


Defense Manpower Data Center.  (2021). DMDC web. Retrieved September 28, 2021, from DMDC

Demers, A. (2011). When veterans return: The role of community in reintegration. Journal of Loss and Trauma, 16(2), 160–179.


Department of the Army. (2024). Army Values. Retrieved on January 3, 2024, from


Department of Veterans Affairs. (2024). VA awards $52.5m in veteran suicide Retrieved on March 3, 2024, from Prevention Grants.


Department of Veterans Affairs (2023). Office of research and development. Retrieved on September 22, 2023, from,in%20terms%20of%20service%20era.


Department of Veterans Affairs (2023). Your VA transition assistance program (Tap)—Outreach, transition and economic development. Retrieved May 22, 2023, from


Department of Veteran Affairs. (2022). Office of research & development. Retrieved on October 28, 2022. from


Dexter, J. C. (2020). Human resources challenges of military to civilian employment transitions. Career Development International, 25(5), 481–500.


Dolan, G., McCauley, M., & Murphy, D. (2022). Factors influencing the salience of military/veteran identity post discharge: A scoping review. Journal of Veterans Studies, 8(1), 231–246.


Elnitsky, C. A., Fisher, M. P., & Blevins, C. L. (2017). Military service member and veteran reintegration: A conceptual analysis, unified definition, and key domains. Frontiers in Psychology, 8.


Engel, L., Bucholc, J., Mihalopoulos, C., Mulhern, B., Ratcliffe, J., Yates, M., & Hanna, L. (2020). A qualitative exploration of the content and face validity of preference-based measures within the context of dementia. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 18(1), 178.


Feaver, P. D., & Kohn, R. H. (Eds.). (2001). Soldiers and civilians: The civil-military gap and American national security. MIT Press.


Feaver, P. D., & Kohn, R. H. (2021). Civil-military relations in the United States: What senior leaders need to know (and usually don’t): SSQ. Strategic Studies Quarterly, 15(2), 12–37. Military Database; SciTech Premium Collection; Social Science Premium Collection.


Haller, M., Angkaw, A. C., Hendricks, B. A., & Norman, S. B. (2016). Does reintegration stress contribute to suicidal ideation among returning veterans seeking PTSD treatment? Suicide & Life-Threatening Behavior, 46(2), 160–171. Academic Search Complete.


Hipes, C., Lucas, J. W., & Kleykamp, M. (2015). Status- and stigma-related consequences of military service and ptsd: Evidence from a laboratory experiment. Armed Forces & Society, 41(3), 477–495.


Hogan, M. (2019). Veteran suicide: Not just a VA issue; It’s a U.S. issue. Annals of Internal Medicine, 171(5), 372–373. Academic Search Complete.


Hogan, P. F., & Furst Seifert, R. (2010). Marriage and the military: Evidence that those who serve marry earlier and divorce earlier. Armed Forces & Society, 36(3), 420–438.


Hogg, M. A., & Williams, K. D. (2000). From I to we: Social identity and the collective self. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, 4(1), 81–97.


Holsti, O. (2001). Of Chasms and convergences: Attitudes and beliefs of civilians and military elites at the start of a new millennium. Soldiers and Civilians: The Civil-Military Gap and American National Security, 15–99.


Huntington, S. P. (1956). Civilian control and the constitution. The American Political Science Review, 50(3), 676–699.

Islam, G. (2014a). Social identity theory. In T. Teo (Ed.), Encyclopedia of critical psychology (Vol. 67, pp. 1781–1783). Springer-Verlag.

Janesick, V. J. (2011). “Stretching” exercises for qualitative researchers (3rd ed). SAGE.


Kachadourian, L. K., Tsai, J., Harpaz-Rotem, I., Southwick, S. M., & Pietrzak, R. H. (2019). Protective correlates of suicidality among veterans with histories of posttraumatic stress disorder and major depressive disorder: Results from the National Health and Resilience in Veterans Study. Journal of Affective Disorders, 246, 731–737.


Keller, E. M., Owens, G. P., Perkins, M., & Hamrick, L. A. (2020). A qualitative analysis of meaning‐making and mental health among OIF/OEF veterans. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 76(10), 1851–1868.


Kemp, K. W., & Hudlin, C. (1992). Civil supremacy over the military: Its nature and limits. Armed Forces & Society, 19(1), 7–26.


Kleykamp, M. (2013). Unemployment, earnings and enrollment among post 9/11 veterans. Social Science Research, 42(3), 836–851.


Legg, C., & Hookway, C. (2021). Pragmatism. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.), The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Summer 2021). Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University.


Lemaire, C. M., & Graham, D. P. (2011). Factors associated with suicidal ideation in OEF/OIF veterans. Journal of Affective Disorders, 130(1/2), 231–238. Academic Search Complete.


Lyons, G. M. (1961). The new civil-military relations. American Political Science Review, 55(1), 53–63.

MacLean, M. B., Van Til, L., Thompson, J. M., Sweet, J., Poirier, A., Sudom, K., & Pedlar, D. J. (2014). Postmilitary adjustment to civilian life: potential risks and protective factors. Physical Therapy, 94(8), 1186. Sports Medicine & Education Index.


Markowitz, F. E., Kintzle, S. M., Castro, C. A., & Lancaster, S. L. (2020). Effects of perceived public regard on the well-being of military veterans. Society and Mental Health, 10(3), 291–304.


McCaslin, S. E., Becket-Davenport, C., Dinh, J. V., Lasher, B., Kim, M., Choucroun, G., & Herbst, E. (2021). Military acculturation and readjustment to the civilian context. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 13(6), 611–620.


McCormick, W. H., Currier, J. M., Isaak, S. L., Sims, B. M., Slagel, B. A., Carroll, T. D., Hamner, K., & Albright, D. L. (2019). Military culture and post-military transitioning among veterans: A qualitative analysis. Journal of Veterans Studies, 4(2), 288.


Merriam, S. B., & Bierema, L. L. (2014). Adult learning: Linking theory and practice (First edition). Jossey-Bass, a Wiley brand.


Mitchell, L. L., Frazier, P. A., & Sayer, N. A. (2020). Identity disruption and its association with mental health among veterans with reintegration difficulty. Developmental Psychology, 56(11), 2152–2166.


O’Donnell, J., Logan, J., & Bossarte, R. (2019). Ten‐year trend and correlates of reported posttraumatic stress disorder among young male veteran suicide decedents—Results from the national violent death reporting system, 16 U.S. States, 2005–2014. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 49(5), 1473–1487.


Office of the Secretary of Defense (2021). Office of the Secretary of Defense. Retrieved on November 12, 2021, from


Ormrod, J. E. (2020). Human learning (8th ed). Pearson/Merrill Prentice Hall.

Palinkas, L. A., Horwitz, S. M., Green, C. A., Wisdom, J. P., Duan, N., & Hoagwood, K. (2015). Purposeful sampling for qualitative data collection and analysis in mixed method implementation research. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 42(5), 533–544.


Patton, M. Q. (2001). Qualitative research and evaluation methods (2 ed). Sage Publications.


Peat, D. M., & Perrmann-Graham, J. (2022). Where do I belong? Conflicted identities and the paradox of simultaneous stigma and social aggrandizement of military veterans in organizations. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 0(0), 1–29.


Ruben, M. A., & LaPiere, T. (2022). Social identity and the mental health and wellbeing of male veterans. Health Psychology Report.


Rubin, M., & Hewstone, M. (1998). Social identity theory’s self-esteem hypothesis: A review and some suggestions for clarification. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 2(1), 40–62.


Schaeffer, K. (2023). The changing face of America’s veteran population. Pew Research Center. Retrieved on December 21, 2023, from


Schreger, C., & Kimble, M. (2017). Assessing civilian perceptions of combat veterans: An IAT study. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 9(Suppl 1), 12–18.


Selective Service System. (2023). About Selective Service. Retrieved on July 9, 2023, from


Shepherd, S., Kay, A. C., & Gray, K. (2019). Military veterans are morally typecast as agentic but unfeeling: Implications for veteran employment. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 153, 75–88.


Smith, E. R. (1999). Affective and cognitive implications of a group becoming a part of the self: New models of prejudice and of the self-concept. Academic Press.


Stern, P. J. (Ed.). (2015). Veterans readjusting to civilian life: Overview of issues, challenges, and transition assistance. Novinka.


Stets, J. E., & Burke, P. J. (2000). Identity theory and social identity theory. Social Psychology Quarterly, 63(3), 224.


Tajfel, H. (1978). Social categorization, social identity and social comparison. In H. Tajfel (Ed.), Differentiation between social group (pp. 61–76). Academic Press.


Tajfel, H. (1978). The achievement of inter-group differentiation. In H. Tajfel (Ed.), Differentiation between social groups: Studies in the social psychology of intergroup relations (pp. 77–100). Academic Press.


Tajfel, H., & Turner, J. C. (1979). An integrative theory of inter-group conflict. In W. Austin & S. Worchel (Eds.), The social psychology of inter-group relations (pp. 33–47). Brooks/Cole.


Tsai, J., Snitkin, M., Trevisan, L., Kraus, S. W., & Pietrzak, R. H. (2020). Awareness of suicide prevention programs among U.S. military veterans. Administration & Policy in Mental Health & Mental Health Services Research, 47(1), 115–125. Academic Search Complete.


Turner, J. C., Hogg, M., Oakes, P., Reicher, S., & Wetherell, M. (1987). Rediscovering the social group: Self-categorization theory. B. Blackwell.


Vespa, Jonathan E. (2020). Those who served: America’s veterans from World War II to the War on Terror. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved on October 9, 2021 from


Vrzgulová, M. (2019). The oral history interview – a relationship and space of trust. Slovenský Národopis / Slovak Ethnology, 67(4), 430–440.


Wood, D. S., Wood, B. M., Watson, A., Sheffield, D., & Hauter, H. (2020). Veteran suicide risk factors: A national sample of nonveteran and veteran men who died by suicide. Health & Social Work, 45(1), 23–30.


Yin, R. K. (2018). Case study research and applications: Design and methods (Sixth edition). SAGE.

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